BACK TO INDEX
Radiation Toxicity Antidotes and USES
(C) 2010 by John W. Apsley, II, MD(E), DC - www.doctorapsley.com
Q: What can I do now to protect myself from nuclear fall-out arriving from the meltdown of Japan's nuclear power plants?
A: History has taught us to "hope for the best," but "plan for the worst" and to educate oneself better than the politicians or their official scientific spokespersons!
The radioactive metals uranium, plutonium, cesium and strontium are of primary concern, right alongside radioactive iodide. Once lodged into our tissues, all will induce lethal tissue ionization, which over decades will derange genetic functions and kill many cells. To avoid this, the metals need to be removed from the cells. Specifically over the long term, radioactive cesium will concentrate in the fatty tissues, radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland and ovaries, strontium in the bone and uranium and plutonium in the liver. For North America, over time this may/will lead to significantly greater levels of cancer or alternative forms of chronic degenerative disease in our children and young adults via the Petkau Effect.(A), (B), 18, 19, 22
The fallout will present in THREE forms or threats to our health:
The first will be the immediate airborne threat over the next several weeks. Depending upon which "starting date" you use (the date of the first detection of radioactive cesium being airborne or when helicopter crews from the USS Ronald Reagan were first documented to have been exposed, i.e., March 14th, 2011), we can expect the West Coast of the U.S. to begin to receive at least minimal fallout within 7 to 10 days or possibly on the weekend of March 19th - 20th, 2011 (see nucelar fallout map above). This may mean that by the 1st of April, the entire region of North America will have undergone the first round of fall-out exposure, even if at undetectable levels in many areas. As the upper air currents repetitively cycle around the globe over and over again, the stock of radioactive airborne materials will fall out as part of normal rainfall or as simple dust particles. For an enlargement of the above map, see: http://img847.imageshack.us/img847/438/fallout.jpg
To track up to the minute levels of excessive radiation here in the U.S., and/or join in this worthy effort, see: http://www.radiationnetwork.com/
The next threat will be when it enters into our water supply and food chain over the many weeks and perhaps months ahead.
The last threat stems from the extremely low levels of radiation which become ever present due to radioactive materials burrowing into our tissues. This will be by far the more deadly form of radiation poisoning to those living in North America, and is properly called The Petkau Effect. The Petkau Effect is in many ways identical to what happens when underground fires ignite that cannot be extinguished. Indeed, there are locations around the world where abandoned coal mines went ablaze and simply cannot be put out. Some of these have smoldered slowly out of control for 30 years or more. The same may occur within our very own bodies when radioactive iodide, uranium, plutonium, cesium and strontium enter our lungs as we breathe or in through our digestive tract when we eat or drink contaminated foods or water. The Petkau Effect applies to chronic low level exposures and accrues over a long time frame because these radioactive materials will continue to emit toxic ionizing radiation for thousands of years.(A), 22
You don't need to worry about acute spikes in radiation which are fleeting, since few will ever experience such an event. You should be concerned about tiny scattered particles that settle into our tissues undetected, and not worry about amounts sufficient to trigger Geiger Counter alarms going off at airport check stations. The tiny amounts of exposure which are more likely to occur give off constant ionizing radiation that burns us at the molecular level over many years before causing a diagnosable issue.19
Also, the cloth-paper masks that many people use around their faces are useless to protect from these tiny particles. Sorry folks! You would need advanced charcoal filters that are quite bulky and more expensive to achieve any meaningful "up-front" protection for your lungs. Therefore, be forewarned that any official positions claiming that, "only low levels of radiation have been detected and therefore pose no real health threat to the American public," are tainted and should be viewed as phraseology more properly akin to either misinformation or outright propaganda.(B), 18
For scientists, the Petkau Effect may be illustrated as follows:
A long term exposure of extremely low radiation (i.e., one-ten millionth of a rad) was found to be 100 BILLION times MORE lethal than a short term exposure to exceedingly high level radiation (i.e., 10,000 rads per minute). As it turns out, Petkau discovered-- that at exceedingly high radiation levels, the abundant free radicals generated in tissues tended to cancel each other out before they could do cellular damage. But at extremely low levels of radiation, these same free radicals - produced in minuscule quantities - remain unchecked. And any steady stream of unchecked free-radicals will efficiently and lethally cleave lipid cellular membranes like a hot knife slicing through butter once they overwhelm and exhaust cellular antioxidant defenses. This dramatically illustrates the non-linear aspects of dose (rads) to lethality. Most scientists specializing in this field are unaware of this fact. And most think strictly in terms of genetic damage, while the above presents its lethal affects upon cell membranes and only secondarily to the genetic core.18
SHORT TERM ANTIDOTES:
1. N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) is the most powerful short term quencher of ionizing radiation. For adults (weighing above 150lbs) , it is taken in dosages of up to 500mg daily. For younger adults weighing 100lbs to 149lbs, 400mg daily affords adequate protection. In children weighing less than 100lbs, but above 50lbs, 200mg daily is a suitable dose. For infants, toddlers or children weighing less than 50lbs, 50mg to 100mg daily may be used in juice, as long as no sensitivity to NAC arises (i.e., light skin rashes). In this manner, NAC may be used daily on an indefinite basis, as it is a harmless amino acid our bodies will use. It is also an excellent remover of toxic metals from the body, such as radioactive uranium. Rarely, some adults are sensitive to NAC, so be aware of special advisories regarding its long term use.6, 7
2. Liquid iodide is also a first line of defense mineral supplement, since it can out-compete radioactive iodide from entering into our bodies.11 Up to 1,000mcg daily are used for several short weeks. Kelp, Irish Moss or Dulse can then replace the liquid iodide. For adults, up to 5 tablets per meal of any one of these may be wise. But for folks allergic to seafoods or iodide, taking Kelp or liquid iodide is not advised. Kelp is also an excellent remover of toxic metals from the body, especially if high fiber intake is also being incorporated into the diet.9, 10
3. Chlorella (and other blue green algae) is a superior protector and remover of radioactive metals from the body contains no less than 20 superior neutralizers to-- radioactive poisons. 5 per meal (250mg each) is a great dose for adults, 3 per meal for young adults and children, and 1 per meal for the very young. Make sure the Chlorella brand you buy has the outer cell wall "cracked" for best absorption. More may be taken, but it is suggested to not exceed 40 tablets daily.3, 4, 29
4. High quality bone meal (rich in Calcium & Strontium Hydroxyapatite) will also protect against radioactive strontium poisoning. 3 per meal as labeled is suggested for adults, young adults and children, and 1-2 per meal for the very young.12
5. Natural Vitamin E Complex - To stop cell membrane destruction. 800iu per day is an excellent dose for average adults, and 400iu per day for young adults and children. Toddlers and infants may be given 100iu per day in juice. (Side Note: Wheat Germ Oil CoQ10(H) and Melatonin...)
6. Consuming High fiber and seaweed dishes on a regular basis must be used to maximize the best effects of the above tools. These will help insure removal of toxic radioactive metals from the body. On rare occassions, if exposures to radioactive metals become chronic or reaches what are considered high levels, baking soda is an efficient means to remove these metals quickly (especially uranium). For adults under doctor supervision, and when deemed medical necessary, up to 1 teaspoon of baking soda can be taken 2 hours after each meal, plus upon rising and upon retiring, for a maximum total of 7 teaspoons daily over a two week period.14, 15
LONG TERM ANTIDOTES (for maintenance):
- Bone Meal (protects against radioactive Strontium);
- Chlorella (protects against most radioactive metals);
- Kelp (protects against radioactive iodide and other radioactive metals);
- Probiotics - several billion per meal in capsule format (protects against radioactive Strontium).16, 17
Examples of Protection Schedules According to Body Weight & Budgetary Allowances
Q: What is the one, least expensive method to protect oneself from radioactive fall-out?
Q: What are the top three tools to protect oneself from initial stages of radioactive fall-out?
A: NAC, Kelp and Chlorella. ( Sea Weed and Sea Fungus and Sea Vegetables at a asian market will as well be considered )
Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg NAC at breakfast, 5 Kelp tablets & 5 Chlorella tablets with each meal.
Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 400mg NAC at breakfast, 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 Chlorella tablets with each meal.
For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 200mg NAC at breakfast, 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet of Chlorella with each meal sprinkled into juice.
For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily sprinkled into juice.
Q: What are the top four tools to protect oneself from initial stages of radioactive fall-out?
A: NAC, Kelp, Chlorella and Vitamn E.
Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg NAC at breakfast, 5 Kelp tablets & 5 Chlorella tablets with each meal + 1 cap Krill Oil.
Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 400mg NAC at breakfast, 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 Chlorella tablets with each meal + 1 cap Krill Oil.
For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 200mg NAC at breakfast, 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet of Chlorella with each meal crushed & sprinkled into juice + 1 cap Krill oil squeezed & blended into milk or juice.
For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily crushed & sprinkled into juice + 1 cap Krill Oil squeezed & blended into milk or juice.
Q: If the lipid membranes are the sole issue, what are the best tools to prevent membrane damage during initial stages of contamination?
A: Many physicians would chose R-alpha lipoic acid (thioctic acid) as their first choice since it will powerfully retard lipid membrane ionization. Lipoic acid tends to bind metals and deposit them into the nucleus of cells (as opposed to removing them from the body).24, 26 Therefore, it is best to use Krill oil, or 'reduced' co-enzyme Q10 [CoQ10(H)], or Vitamin E and Melatonin to accomplish a better end result. Krill oil, CoQ10(H) and Vitamin E would neutralize the ionizing effects onsite, while Melatonin would also seek to safely remove the offending radioactive particle from the body (via the bile route of elmination provided there is adequate fiber).7, 21, 23, 25 In order of strength, Krill Oil reigns supreme, then CoQ10(H), then Melatonin, and finally Vitamin E. But for the kinds of low dose exposures North America is likely to receive, natural Vitamin E complex should provide adequate protection if taken ahead of exposures. Melatonin is a superior multitasking nutrient and so serves purposes beyond the others. Therefore, this is a prudent tool to include if budget allows. In summary, budget prudently for the suggested schedules below, and if necessary, eliminate Krill oil in favor of Vitamin E, eliminate NAC in favor of extra Chlorella, and substitute Spirulina over Chlorella to save money as necessary.
Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg NAC + 800iu Natural Vit. E at breakfast + 1 cap Krill oil; 5 Kelp tablets, 5 Chlorella tablets with each meal; and 10mg Melatonin at bedtime.
Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 400mg NAC + 400iu Natural Vit. E at breakfast + 1 cap Krill oil; 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 Chlorella tablets with each meal, and 3mg Melatonin at bedtime.
For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 200mg NAC + 200iu Natural Vit. E at breakfast + 1 cap Krill oil squeezed & mixed into milk or juice; 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet of Chlorella with each meal; and 1mg Melatonin at bedtime.
For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 100iu Natural Vit. E, 1 cap Krill Oil squeezed & mixed into milk or juice, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily sprinkled into juice; and 500mcg chewable Melatonin at bedtime.
Q: In view of the long term consequences from nuclear power plant meltdown, what maintenance schedules should be incorporated to best help us all prevent cancer decades down the road?
A: Kelp, Spirulina, Natural Vitamins C & E, high-quality Bone Meal, high-end probiotics (acidophilus), and Melatonin + selenium along with my Getting Started tab above for complete menu planning.
Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 400iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics at breakfast; 2 Kelp tablets, 3 Spirulina tablets & 2 Bone Meal tablets with each meal; and 10mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be ingested daily.
Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 400iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics at breakfast; 2 tablets of Kelp, 2 Spirulina tablets & 2 Bone meal tablets with each meal, and 3mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be ingested daily.
For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 200iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics at breakfast; 1 tablet of Kelp, 1 tablet of Chlorella and one Bone Meal with each meal (all sprinkled into juice as appropriate); and 1mg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 100mcg - 200mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be consumed daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 100iu Natural Vit. E, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics plus 2 Bone Meal capsules opened & sprinkled into juice daily; and 500mcg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 50mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Lastly, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is attempted to be given daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
Best Long Term Protocol: I (Dr. Apsley) have an extended family, with children ranging in ages from 34 down to 11, and three grandkids ages 4 & 2 years of age. My recommended maintenance schedules to my family are provided below:
Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 250mg NAC + 400iu Natural Vitamin E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics & 3 capsules Krill Oil at breakfast; 2 Kelp tablets, 3 Chlorella tablets & 2 Bone Meal tablets with each meal; and 10mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one to three effervescent Vitamin C drinks are to be ingested daily.
Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 250mg NAC + 400iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics & 2 caps Krill Oil at breakfast; 2 tablets of Kelp, 2 Chlorella tablets & 2 Bone meal tablets with each meal, and 3mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be ingested daily.
For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 200mg NAC + 200iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics & 1 cap Krill Oil at breakfast; 1 tablet of Kelp, 1 tablet of Chlorella and one Bone Meal with each meal (all sprinkled into juice as appropriate); and 1mg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 100mcg - 200mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be consumed daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 100iu Natural Vit. E, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics plus 2 Bone Meal capsules opened & sprinkled into juice daily; and 500mcg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 50mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Lastly, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is attempted to be given daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
Q: What can I do to antidote my exposures to radiation therapy?
A: Radiation toxicity from any source, including the after effects of radioablative therapy, can be detoxified or lessened and even reversed by the use of colloidal Regeneration Factors or cRFsTM.38, 39, 40 Just be sure to take after radioablative therapy has completed or is placed on hold. cRFsTM derive from select raw foods which contain high amounts of RNA or nucleoproteins as found in organ meats, nuts & seeds, sprouts, food-grade algae and bee pollen.(C) Folks who tend to get gouty cannot take high amounts of these select foods sources, but usually can handle some intake providing the source is raw and not cooked. For example, food grade algae products, which are raw, can serve such folks well if lots of SAW is being ingested as well. All protocols for diet under this website are high in these factors, i.e., SAW plus RNA-cRFsTM.
For an average size adult, the foremost factors one should focus on to reduce the toxic after affects from radioablative therapy are:
A. NAC (as above);6
B. Chlorophyll (found in sea vegetables, and richest in Chlorella or Spirulina - 5 per meal for adults);3, 4
C. cRFsTM - As found in Chlorella, Spirulina and organic organ meats such as liver, spleen and thymus in freeze-dried format. When taking capsules of organic
glandulars without algae products as above, up to a combined 12 to 18 capsules per day for an average adult is optimal. When taking with algae products
according to the above dosages, cut this amount in 1/2);1, 2
D. Krill oil or Vitamin E Complex (including delta and gamma tocopherols and tocotrienols taken as above). Krill oil is 300 times more powerful than Vitamin E
and 34 times more powerful than CoQ10 for reducing free-radical damage, mainly to cellular lipid membranes in the body;7, 21, 27, 28
E. Lipoic acid as R-alpha lipoic acid (100mg three times daily for adults, 100mg daily for young adults and children, 25mg - 50mg daily for the very young - when
no toxic metal particles are involved, just gamma rays);7
F. Melatonin (5mg to 20 mg at bedtime for adults, ≤ 1mg to 3mg for children and young adults respectively);5
G. Reduced CoQ10 or Ubiquinol (100mg daily for adults, 50mg per day for smaller adults and children, 25mg daily for the very young);7, 21
H. Vitamin C and Quercetin (1,000mg three times daily and 100mg three times daily respectively);7, 21
I. Organic Selenium as selenomethionate or when grown into kelp or other foods (400mcg - 600mcg daily for adults, 200mcg - 400mcg daily for young adults, 200mcg daily for children, 50mcg - 100mcg daily for the very young).21
If any confusion remains, your holistic trained doctor can adjust the above dosages down or up according to your weight.
Strongly suggested additions to the diet:
All manner and selections of sea vegetables (seaweed dishes) are the first choice.9, 10 Additionally, two herbal medicines which are very potent antidotes to high radiation exposure are: high-quality Aloe vera juice 20 (for any radiation burns, internal or external), and Noni juice 13 (Morinda citrifolia). Also, eliminate all refined sugar from the diet. Lastly, emerging evidence suggests that one species of structured water (Fullerene-C60) may be able to protect normal cells from harmful effects of radiation therapy while simultaneously enhancing results of radiation therapy.8 More studies are needed to confirm this theory.
In the unlikely event of an emergency concerning acute radiation poisoning, baking soda may be used when directly exposed to high levels of radioactive nuclei (americium, cesium, plutonium, strontium, uranium, etc...):
Under a doctor's supervision, baking soda is the tool of choice to remove these toxic metals from the body quickly. Up to 7 teaspoons daily for adults may be used short-term (over 6 consecutive days) to accomplish thorough decontamination, with route & rate of adminstration carefully considered by the physician. Now, couple this protocol to the lipid membrane protocol listed above with added probiotic supplementation and as appropriate use Aloe and Noni juice with a strict diet of no refined carbohydrates, and plenty of SAW.7, 12, 14, 15, 21, 23, 25 Where run-a-way inflammation has taken hold, quadruple NAC intake & follow the natural aspirin, omega 3 & 6 oil protocols with cherry concentrate, curcumin and boswellia (see: http://doctorapsley.com/AspirinandSynergistsforCancer.aspx).
Alternatively, intravenous administration of 5% baking soda (in 500cc), glutathione (2gm), reduced CoQ10 (300mg), sodium ascorbate (10gm), Omega 3 oils (2gm), NAC (5gm) and selenium (2mg) can be administered daily over the course of a week or two, with good success where patient is incapable of ingesting oral supplements. Patient should sip Aloe and Noni juice ad lib.
To those who may dissent from the above science:
Currently there are a group of esteemed physicists who are suggesting that low levels of radiation from any source, can be beneficial. They are citing some very compelling evidence which suggests that cancer rates can actually go down, not up, with long term, low level exposures to toxic radioactive nuclei such as cobalt or cesium. They also link this kind of radiation to the principles of "hormesis" something of which Eclectic Physicians are quite familiar with. And finally, they cite mineral rich hot springs which are known to emit low level radiation from a naturally occurring radioisotope called radon.30 In fact, the hot springs in Ikaria, Greece and select hot springs in Misasa Hot Springs District of Japan are famous for healings reportedly arising from proper use of these therapeutic waters.
Eclectic physicians often specialize in BioEnergetics, the Fourth Pillar to The Regeneration Effect. And what these experts will tell you is that select low levels of radiation that disrupt cell membranes will trigger attempts in tissues to regenerate the damage, which is termed autophagy. Just enough autophagy with just enough antioxidants and other essential factors like oxygen and you are, "In like Flint." But too much autophagy with too little antioxidants or under conditions of hypoxia, and you run into cancer, premature cellular death or autoimmune disease. Therefore, only looking at cancer death rates without the other diseases that can substitute in cancer's place, is misleading to say the least when examining radiation hormesis.
For example, since WWII, over 555,000 TRILLION picocuries of radiation have been released into the Earth's biosphere with a half life exceeding 10,000 years of toxicity.18 This helps to explain the dramatic rise, for example, of Cancer, but also Hashimoto's Disease, Hypothyroidism Type 2, Diabetes Type 2, Colitis, Crohn's Disease, Lupus, Scleroderma, ALS, MS, R.A., Osteoporosis, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Universal Allergic Reactors, Alzheimer's Disease, infertility, Autism, Low Birth Weight, the rise in Birth Defects, Infant Failure to Thrive Syndromes (i.e., SIDS), etc... These emerging studies so far do nothing to track these substitutes for cancer which may arise from chronic, low level radiation poisoning. For further confirmation of the above, according to Gabriel Cousens, MD, in his book, Conscious Eating (regarding the Chernobyl incident), reports:41
"(A top expert, Dr. Ernest J. Sternglass of the University of Pittsburgh) presented at the First Global Radiation Victims Conference in New York in September 1987, impressively conveyed the seriousness of the radiation problem. The infant mortality rate following the arrival of the Chernobyl fallout in early May of 1986 showed a 54% increase in June 1986 in the Pacific region of the United States. Washington State had the highest rate in the region with a 245% increase in deaths per thousand live births. California was next highest with a 48% increase in infant mortality as compared to June of the year before. These high rates lasted for July and August. Massachusetts led the nation in post-Chernobyl increase of infant mortality rate with an increase of 900% per thousand live births! Massachusetts also had a decline of 70% in newborns. The rate of live births also decreased throughout the country in response to the Chernobyl fallout. The US fertility rate decreased 8.3% in July and August to the lowest level ever observed in United States history."
So the above illustrates what happens when everyone is looking in the wrong direction, even if for the right reason. Therefore in my book, there is no such thing as safe, low level exposures to "man-made" sources of radiation. Indeed, any short term benefits will be offset by untoward effects in the future, even if we are too ignorant at present to catch it in advance. Without the proper reference points to link back such differing kinds of data, confusion will prevail when trying to gauge radiation morbidity and mortality statistics. So, what are the proper reference points that will tell us here and now if low levels of any kind of radiation are potentially beneficial to human tissues? These reference points derive from those discovered by Gilbert N. Ling, and two other experts in BioEnergetics, relating to seven factors:31, 32, 33
- Does the radiation improve aerobic metabolism of the cell or tissue or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal aerobic
- Does the radiation improve the pH profile of the external and internal milieu of the cell or tissue or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which
displays optimal pH?
- Does the radiation improve the structured water (polarized multilayers of water or PM water) within the cell or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which display optimal PM water?
- Does the radiation improve or harm the normal spectrum of mineral elements in the cell and their proper locations or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal mineral reserves?
- Does the radiation improve or harm the special proline-rich-peptides within cells that are the scafolding to the PM water in the cell or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal proline-rich-peptide reserves?
- Is the 'Phase Angle' of the body improved by the radiation exposure or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal Phase Angle?
- And finally, is the negative millivolts of the cell and tissues improved from the radiation exposure or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal millivolts?
Physicists who doubt that man-made low level radiation cause harm must verify their opinion by addressing the above questions. Until they do, they stand on inadequately circumspect data points.
Always restore the body's own self-healing system first. Then the "footing" of all other natural healing tools employed will have the advantage of driving forward from the high-ground. cRFsTM are key to this strategy when dealing with all radiation toxicity situations, as is abundant SAW and plenty of fresh air. With so much to gain, and so little to lose, why not at least consider a sound maintenance schedule for you and your family?
(A). Abram Petkau, PhD, is a former nuclear physics researcher assigned to Atomic Energy of Canada, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Pinowa, Manitoba during the early 1970's.
Also see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petkau_effect
(B). For a complete review on low-level radiation dangers and cover-ups, please see: Gould JM, Sternglass EJ, Mangano JJ, and McDonnell W. The Enemy Within. Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, NY
(C). See upcoming eBook The Regeneration Effect, Volume 1, for complete documentation covering this subject and the items listed above. See: http://doctorapsley.com/EBooks.aspx
1. Lourau, M. and Lartigue, O., Experientia, 1950;6:25.
2. Duplan, Influence of Dietary Regimen on Radiosensitivity of the Guinea Pig, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sc., 1953;236:424.
3. Colloway S. Reduction of X-Radiation Mortality by Cabbage and Broccoli, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Bio. Med., 1959;100:405.
4. Colloway S, et al. Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces Report, N.R., 1961:12-61.
5. Vijayalaxmi et al. Melatonin as a radioprotective agent: a review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Jul1;59(3):639-53. Also See first abstract below.
6. Chung SW, et al. Molecular delineation of gamma-Ray-Induced NF-kappaB activation and pro-inflammatory genes in SMP30 knockout mice. Radiat Res. 2010 May;173(5):629-34.
7. Brown SL, et al. Antioxidant diet supplementation starting 24 hours after exposure reduces radiation lethality. Radiat Res. 2010 Apr;173(4):462-8.
8. Kateb B, et al. Nanoplatforms for constructing new approaches to cancer treatment, imaging, and drug delivery: What should be the policy? Neuroimage, 2010;105.
9. Maruyama H, Yamamoto I. Suppression of 125I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding: possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine.
Kitasato Arch Exp Med. 1992 Dec;65(4):209-16.
10. Gong YF, et al. Suppression of radioactive strontium absorption by sodium alginate in animals and human subjects. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Sep;4(3):273-82.
11. Weiss JF, Landauer MR. History and development of radiation-protective agents. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009 Jul;85(7):539-73.
12. Apostoaei AI. Absorption of strontium from the gastrointestinal tract into plasma in healthy human adults. Health Phys. 2002 Jul;83(1):56-65.
13. Qiao ZS, Wu H, Su ZW. [Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Jul;11(7):415-7, 390.
14. Henge-Napoli MH, et al. Efficacy of 3,4,3-LIHOPO for reducing the retention of uranium in rat after acute administration. Int J Radiat Biol. 1995 Oct;68(4):389-93.
15. Fatome M. [Management of accidental internal exposure]. J Radiol. 1994 Nov;75(11):571-5. And see: http://amarillo.com/stories/022708/bus_9691333.shtml.
16. Chaitow L, Trenev N. Probiotics. Thorsons, Hammersmith, London, 1990;pp. 15, 118-20 & 144.
17. Blom H, Mortvedt T. Anti-microbial substances produced by food associated micro-organisms. Biochem Soc Trans Food Biotech. 1991;694-98.
18. Null G, et al. What physicians should know about the biological effects of ingested fission products. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. Aug/Sep 1993;(121/122):812.
See: http://www.laka.org/docu/boeken/pdf/6-01-4-80-46.pdf page 21, second paragraph.
19. Petkau A. Effect of Na-22 on phospholipid membranes. Health Physics 1972 Mar. (See reference above.) Also see: http://www.no-nukes.org/prairieisland/hilolevel2.html
20. Bakuridze AD, et al. [Radio protective drug production from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill]. Georgian Med News. 2009 Jun;(171):80-3.
21. Wambi CO, et al. Protective effects of dietary antioxidants on proton total-body irradiation-mediated hematopoietic cell and animal survival. Radiat Res. 2009 Aug;172(2):175-86.
22. Graeub R. The Petkau Effect, 2nd edition, Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, NY (1994).
23. Bellés M, Melatonin reduces uranium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Pineal Res. 2007 Aug;43(1):87-95.
24. Aposhian HV, et al. Vitamin C, glutathione, or lipoic acid did not decrease brain or kidney mercury in rats exposed to mercury vapor. Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 2003;41(4):339-47.
25. Reiter RJ, et al. Mechanisms for the Protective Actions of Melatonin in the Central Nervous System. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2001;939:200-215.
26. Hultberg G, Andersson A, Isaksson A. Lipoic acid increases glutathione production and enhances the effect of mercury in human cell lines. Toxicology, 2002 Jun14;175(1-3):103-10.
27. See: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2008/08/14/is-krill-oil-48-times-better-than-fish-oil.aspx
28. Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Sep;12(3):207-27.
29. Apsley J. The Regeneration Effect: A Professional Treatise on Self Healing, Volume 2, Genesis Communications, LLC, Northport, AL, 1996;p.75. ISBN: 0-945704-02-X.
30. See: http://townhall.com/columnists/anncoulter/2011/03/16/a_glowing_report_on_radiation/page/full/
31. Ling GN. Life at the Cell and Below - Cell Level: A Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology. Pacific Press, NY. 2001.
32. Tennant J. Healing is Voltage: The Key to Pain Control and Chronic Disease, Tennant Institute for Integrative Medicine and Pain Control, Irving, TX. 972-580-1156.
33. The Phase Angle is the angle between resistance and impedence, and is measured in degrees. See: http://www.rjlsystems.com/bia-disease-states.shtml
34. Rotkovska D, et al. The radioprotective effects of aqueous extract from Chlorococcal freshwater algae (Chlorella kessieri) in mice and rats. Strahlenther Onkol. 1989;165:813.
35. Vacek A, et al. Radioprotection of hemopoisesis conferred by aqueous extract from Chlorococcal algae (Ivastimul) administered to mice before radiation. Exp Heamotol. 1990;18:237-73.
36. Qishen P, et al. Radioprotective effect of extract from Spirulina platensis in mouse bone marrow cells studied by using the micronucleus test. Toxicology Let. 1989;48:165.
37. Horikoshi T, et al. Uptake of uranium by various cell fractions of Chlorella regularis. Radioisotopes, 1979 Aug;28(8):485-87.
38. Maisin J, et al. Yeast ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides as recovery factors in rats receiving an acute whole-body dose of X-rays. Nature, 1960;186:487-95.
39. Ebel JP, et al. Study on the therapeutic effect on irradiated mice of substances contained in RNA preparations. Int J Radiat Biol. 1969;16:201-09.
40. Wagner R, Silverman EC. Chemical protection against X-radiation in the Guinea-Pig. I. Radioprective action of RNA and ATP. Int J Radiat Biol. 1967;12:101-12.
41. Cousens G. Conscious Eating. North Atlantic Books; 2 edition (April 11, 2000). ISBN13: 9781556432859
Seaweeds & Kelp:
Kitasato Arch Exp Med. 1992 Dec;65(4):209-16.
Suppression of 125I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding: possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine.
Maruyama H, Yamamoto I.
Department of Pathology, Kitasato University School of Hygienic Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.
We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530 +/- 0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8 +/- 1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008 +/- 0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4% +/- 0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of 125I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and beta-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. PMID: 1344008
Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Sep;4(3):273-82.
Suppression of radioactive strontium absorption by sodium alginate in animals and human subjects.
Gong YF, Huang ZJ, Qiang MY, Lan FX, Bai GA, Mao YX, Ma XP, Zhang FG.
Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China.
The effect of 23 sodium alginate preparations from different species of algae (Sargassum sp.) and kelp (Laminaria sp.) on reducing the absorption of strontium was studied in detail. A pilot production procedure has been established. Na alginate from S. siliquastrum was proven to be a potent agent for reducing Sr absorption, with high efficiency and virtually no toxicity. It reduced the body burden of strontium 3.3-4.2 fold in rats. Strontium absorption in human subjects was reduced by 78% (+/- 8.9) or completely suppressed the increase of serum Sr at 2 h after ingestion of stable Sr in volunteers and decrease 24 h urine Sr to similar extent. No undesirable effects on gastrointestinal function was observed nor were Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn metabolism changed, both in the animal experiments and in human. It was concluded that alginate preparations derived from Sargassum species are a suitable antidote against radiostrontium absorption on a long-term basis, when added to bread at a 6% level. In cases of emergency, an alginate syrup preparation appears to be more suitable because of its rapid action. PMID: 1764217
Studies Associated with NAC, Selenium, Vit. C & E, Lipoic acid and CoQ10 supplementation:
Radiat Res. 2010 Apr;173(4):462-8.
Antioxidant diet supplementation starting 24 hours after exposure reduces radiation lethality.
Brown SL, Kolozsvary A, Liu J, Jenrow KA, Ryu S, Kim JH.
Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Antioxidants mitigate radiation-induced lethality when started soon after radiation exposure, a delivery time that may not be practical due to difficulties in distribution and because the oral administration of such agents may require a delay beyond the prodromal stage of the radiation syndrome. We report the unexpected finding that antioxidant supplementation starting 24 h after total-body irradiation resulted in better survival than antioxidant supplementation started soon after the irradiation. The antioxidant dietary supplement was l-selenomethionine, sodium ascorbate, N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, alpha-tocopherol succinate, and co-enzyme Q10. Total-body irradiation with 8 Gy in the absence of antioxidant supplementation was lethal by day 16. When antioxidant supplementation was started soon after irradiation, four of 14 mice survived. In contrast, 14 of 18 mice receiving antioxidant supplementation starting 24 h after irradiation were alive and well 30 days later. The numbers of spleen colonies and blood cells were higher in mice receiving antioxidant supplementation starting 24 h after irradiation than in mice receiving radiation alone. A diet supplemented with antioxidants administered starting 24 h after total-body irradiation improved bone marrow cell survival and mitigated lethality, with a radiation protection factor of approximately 1.18. PMID: 20334518
Studies Associated with Calcium Intake (and therefore pertaining to Bone Meal supplementation):
Health Phys. 2004 Jun;86(6):557-64.
Dietary intakes of seven elements of importance in radiological protection by asian population: comparison with ICRP data.
Iyengar GV, Kawamura H, Dang HS, Parr RM, Wang J, Akhter P, Cho SY, Natera E, Miah FK, Dojosubroto J, Nguyen MS.
Nutrition and Health-Related Environmental Studies Section Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. V.Iyengar@IAEA.org
Within the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, the daily dietary intakes of seven elements by adult populations living in nine Asian countries were estimated. The countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea (Republic of Korea, ROK), and Vietnam and together they represented more than half of the world population. The seven elements studied were calcium, cesium, iodine, potassium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. These elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. Analyses of diet samples for these seven elements were carried out using highly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques. One thousand one hundred and sixty analytical determinations were made on two hundred and twenty samples of typical diets consumed in these countries to estimate the daily intakes of these elements by the adult Asian population. The median daily dietary intakes for the adult Asian population were found to be 0.45 g calcium, 7 microg cesium, 90 microg iodine, 1.75 g potassium, 1.65 mg strontium, 1 microg thorium, and 1 microg uranium. When compared with the intakes proposed for ICRP Reference Man by International Commission for Radiological Protection, these intakes were lower by factors of 0.41 for calcium, 0.7 for cesium, 0.45 for iodine, 0.53 for potassium, 0.87 for strontium, 0.33 for thorium, and 0.52 for uranium. The lower daily intakes of calcium, cesium, and iodine by Asian population could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium in most of the Asian countries may lead to higher uptake of fission nuclide 90Sr and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate and lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggest that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from ICRP data. PMID: 15167119
Health Phys. 2002 Jul;83(1):56-65.
Absorption of strontium from the gastrointestinal tract into plasma in healthy human adults.
SENES, Oak Ridge, Inc, TN 37830, USA. email@example.com
The radioactive isotopes of strontium have always been a major concern in radiation protection. Currently, radiostrontium is of interest for evaluation of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and for epidemiological studies in populations exposed to releases from the Mayak nuclear facilities in Russia. Ingestion is one of the most important exposure pathways involving radioactive strontium. The main sources of published data on the fraction of the ingested strontium that is transferred to plasma (f1) are summarized. For some of these studies, the original data had to be reanalyzed and a new iterative method to account for the elimination in feces of strontium of endogenous origin (i.e., that was absorbed to blood and has already been returned into feces) was employed. Data indicate no significant dependence of the absorbed fraction on sex or age at exposure within the adult group, but absorption of (radioactive) strontium is reduced if the intake of stable calcium is very high and is enhanced if the intake of calcium is very low. The probability distribution function of f1 values is well represented by a lognormal curve with a geometric mean of 22.3% and a geometric standard deviation of 1.44 (95% confidence interval 10.9% to 45.6%, or about a factor of 2 around the geometric mean). This distribution can be considered representative for the variability of the f1 values in a population of healthy adults. PMID: 12075684
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Jul 1;59(3):639-53.
Melatonin as a radioprotective agent: a review.
Vijayalaxmi, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Herman TS, Thomas CR Jr.
Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, 78229, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief secretory product of the pineal gland in the brain, is well known for its functional versatility. In hundreds of investigations, melatonin has been documented as a direct free radical scavenger and an indirect antioxidant, as well as an important immunomodulatory agent. The radical scavenging ability of melatonin is believed to work via electron donation to detoxify a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. It has long been recognized that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are brought about by both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct action produces disruption of sensitive molecules in the cells, whereas the indirect effects ( approximately 70%) result from its interaction with water molecules, which results in the production of highly reactive free radicals such as *OH, *H, and e(aq)- and their subsequent action on subcellular structures. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of melatonin was used as a rationale to determine its radioprotective efficiency. Indeed, the results from many in vitro and in vivo investigations have confirmed that melatonin protects mammalian cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, several clinical reports indicate that melatonin administration, either alone or in combination with traditional radiotherapy, results in a favorable efficacy:toxicity ratio during the treatment of human cancers. This article reviews the literature from laboratory investigations that document the ability of melatonin to scavenge a variety of free radicals (including the hydroxyl radical induced by ionizing radiation) and summarizes the evidence that should be used to design larger translational research-based clinical trials using melatonin as a radioprotector and also in cancer radiotherapy. The potential use of melatonin for protecting individuals from radiation terrorism is also considered. PMID: 15183467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Jul;11(7):415-7, 390.
[Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua].
[Article in Chinese]
Qiao ZS, Wu H, Su ZW.
College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai.
There are three kinds of plants, Morinda officinalis (1), Damnacanthus officinarum (2), and Schisandra propinqua (3) whose roots have been used since the ancient time. In this paper, some of their pharmacological actions that are related to tonifying and invigorating Yang were examined and compared. The body weight, the thymus weight, the amount of leukocyte in the blood, and the continuing swimming times of the young mice could be increased with the oral administration of the water extractions of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05-0.001). The Rt of M-receptor in the brains of the hypothyroidism mice were decreased after administration of the water extracts of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05). (1) could also increased the amount of leukocyte in the blood of leukocytopenia mice caused by radiation of gamma-ray (P less than 0.01). (3) has not shown the obvious effects (P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that (1) and (2) have the ability of anti-fatigue, improving the immunological action of the young mice, and reducing the excitability of the para-sympathetic nervous system of the hypothyroidism mice through decreasing the Rt of M-receptor in their brains. All of them did not show acute toxicity, inducing mutation, and sexual hormone like actions. PMID: 1914038
Georgian Med News. 2009 Jun;(171):80-3.
[Radio protective drug production from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill].
[Article in Russian]
Bakuridze AD, Nikolaev SM, Berashvili DT, Bakuridze KA, Tsomaia IV.
Nowadays, phytogenous drugs are wildly used as radio protective substances. The aim of the research was to study radio protective characteristics of aloe juice fraction and to develop new technology for radio protective drug production. Technological scheme for getting the drug in two stages. The first stage - extraction of juice from fresh leaves; the second stage - extracting bagasse have been developed and optimal environment for bagasse extraction are defined: Infusion of bagasse with 96 % ethyl spirit (1:1) during 30 minutes, continuation of extracting with water on correlation to raw materials 10:1 at temperature of 70 degrees C during 30 minutes. For the basis of the first series of balanced loading there are taken the optimal parameters of extracting process, on the basis of which in its turn was developed technological scheme of getting dry extract of aloe. Dry extract is a fine-dispersed reddish-yellow (brownish-yellow) powder, which can be easily dissolved in warm (40-60 degrees C) water. Pharmacological researches were conducted in the Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch, Russian. Academy of Sciences. The remarkable radio protective effect of the drug was revealed. PMID: 19578223
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 Feb 12;98(2):144-51. Epub 2009 Dec 5.
Defensive effects of fullerene-C60/liposome complex against UVA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and cell death in human skin keratinocytes HaCaT, associated with intracellular uptake and extracellular excretion of fullerene-C60.
Kato S, Kikuchi R, Aoshima H, Saitoh Y, Miwa N.
Laboratory of Cell-Death Control BioTechnology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562, Nanatsuka, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023, Japan.
The UVA-irradiation of 10 J/cm(2) on HaCaT keratinocytes increased 59.1% of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NBT assay and the cell viability decreased to 31.5% by WST-1 assay, comparing to the non-irradiated control. In the presence of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in phospholipid membrane vehicle (LiposomeFullerene: Lpsm-Flln) of 250-500 ppm, they were restored to -9.1% to +2.3% of the ROS and 83.0-84.8% of the cell viability, but scarcely restored by the liposome without C60 (Lpsm). In HaCaT cells administered with Lpsm-Flln (150 ppm), C60 was ingested at the intracellular concentrations of 1.4-21.9 ppm for 4-24 h, and, intracellular C60 was excreted by 80% at 4h after rinsing-out, and decreased to 2-10% after 24-48 h. C60 was predominantly distributed around the outside of nuclear membrane without deterioration of intact cell morphology according to fluorescent immunostain. Thus Lpsm-Flln is found to be an effective antioxidant that could preserve HaCaT keratinocytes against UVA-induced cellular injury. Lpsm-Flln has a potential to serve as a cosmetic material for skin protection against UVA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20060738 [PubMed - in process]
J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2008 May;49(3):321-7. Epub 2008 Feb 16.
Fullerenol C60(OH)24 effects on antioxidative enzymes activity in irradiated human erythroleukemia cell line.
Bogdanović V, Stankov K, Icević I, Zikic D, Nikolić A, Solajić S, Djordjević A, Bogdanović G.
Institute of Oncology, Department of Experimental Oncology, Sremska, Kamenica, Serbia.
Radiotherapy-induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anti-cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that are associated with radiation-induced cell death. Investigations of biological effects of fullerenol have provided evidence for its ROS/RNS scavenger properties in vitro and radioprotective efficiency in vivo. Therefore we were interested to evaluate its radioprotective properties in vitro in the human erythroleukemia cell line. Pre-treatment of irradiated cells by fullerenol exerted statistically significant effects on cell numbers and the response of antioxidative enzymes to X-ray irradiation-induced oxidative stress in cells. Our study provides evidence that the pre-treatment with fullerenol enhanced the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in irradiated K562 cells. PMID: 18285660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda):
A study of the acidosis, blood urea, and plasma chlorides in uranium nephritis in the dog, and of the protective action of sodium bicarbonate.
Methods: The presence of an acidosis in dogs with experimental uranium nephritis is demonstrable by the Van Slyke-Stillman-Cullen method and that of Marriott. It is detected more readily by the former method. This acidosis is associated with increase in the blood urea and plasma chlorides and with the appearance of albumin and casts in the urine. Results: The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate diminishes the acidosis, the increase in plasma chlorides, the amount of albumin and casts in the urine, and, to a lesser degree, the increase in the blood urea following the administration of uranium. It also diminishes the severity of the changes produced by uranium in the kidneys. Conclusions: The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate to normal dogs raises the carbon dioxide content of the plasma as determined by the Van Slyke-Stillman-Cullen method, and reduces the nephrotoxicity associated with uranium exposure in dogs.
J Radiol. 1994 Nov;75(11):571-5.
[Management of accidental internal exposure].
[Article in French]
Radionucleides can penetrate into the body via the lung, the digestive tract, wounds and sometimes through healthy skin. Once they have penetrated the body, they can either remain localized at the site of entry or be rapidly metabolized. The risk is late effects. Radioelements must be eliminated as rapidly as possible decreasing the exposure proportionally. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on early institution. Nevertheless, emergency intensive care or surgery may be required. As soon as possible, explorations must be carried out to evaluate the level of contamination (human spectrometry, radiotoxicological examinations) and to start treatment. Modalities include non-specific techniques (lavage, insolubilization, laxatives) and specific techniques such as complexation or isotopic dilution (iodine for iodine, Prussian blue for cesium, DTPA for plutonium, Diamox or sodium bicarbonate for uranium). Surgical cleaning of wounds and burns is an excellent means of decontamination. External contamination is often associated. Further contamination must be prevented immediately. PMID: 7844774
Int J Radiat Biol. 1995 Oct;68(4):389-93.
Efficacy of 3,4,3-LIHOPO for reducing the retention of uranium in rat after acute administration.
Henge-Napoli MH, Archimbaud M, Ansoborlo E, Metivier H, Gourmelon P.
Institute de Protection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IPSN, Fontenay aux Roses, France.
Decorporation therapy is the only known effective method of reducing the radiation dose to persons following accidental internal contamination with transportable radionuclides. Deposits of actinides in bone should be minimized because development of osteosarcoma appears to be related to internal exposure. In contrast with other actinides, such as plutonium or americium where chelating agent treatment is efficient, the therapeuric approaches used for cases of uranium contamination are widely ineffective. This is the first report on in vivo efficacy of a chelating agent, a siderophore analogue code named 3,4,3-LIHOPO, after systematic exposure to natural uranium in the rat. Using the classical antidotal therapy (sodium bicarbonate) for comparison, this ligand has been investigated for its ability to remove uranium from rats after intravenous or intramuscular injection as nitrate. Following an immediate single intramuscular or intravenous injection of 3,4,3-LIHOPO (30 mumol.kg-1) urinary excretion of uranium was greatly enhanced with a corresponding reduction 24 h later in kidney and bone uranium content (to about 20 and 50% of the control rat respectively). Under identical experimental conditions, sodium bicarbonate (640 mumol.kg-1) reduced the uranium content in kidney in kidney and bone only to about 90 and 70% of controls respectively, and there was less enhancement of uranium excretion. However, when treatment was delayed by 30 min and administered intraperitoneally, there was no marked difference in retention and excretion of uranium between the two compounds. As this ligand showed no apparent irreversible toxicity at effective dosages, it is concluded that the administration of the 3,4,3-LIHOPO chelating agent represents potentially a most significant advance for prompt treatment of uranium contamination, while a more detailed investigation is necessary on the possible advantage when treatment delayed. PMID: 7594963
Ann Pharm Fr. 1999 Sep;57(5):397-400.
[Reduction of renal uranium uptake by acetazolamide: the importance of urinary elimination of bicarbonate].
[Article in French]
Destombes C, Laroche P, Cazoulat A, Gérasimo P.
Centre d'Etudes du Bouchet, Clamart.
Acetazolamide was compared with bicarbonate for the treatment of contamination with uranium. Uranium was injected peritoneally in rats, and its distribution was investigated. Acetazolamide was three times more efficient than bicarbonate in reducing the renal content of uranium. On the other hand, it had no effect on hepatic or skeletal content. In this study, renal physiology provides the basis for understanding the mode of action of acetazolamide and bicarbonate. In this context, it is of interest to determine the alkalinity of the urine, with the aim of knowing whether bicarbonate is present to mobilize uranium. PMID: 10520511
J Cell Physiol. 2005 Dec;205(3):428-36.
Alkaline induces metallothionein gene expression and potentiates cell proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Lin KA, Chen JH, Lee DF, Lin LY.
Institute of Radiation Biology and Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Metallothionein (MT) gene expression is increased in cadmium resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO Cd(R)) upon medium (regular or serum-free) change during culturing. Among the major components of the medium, NaHCO3 was found to be able to induce MT gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The same effect was observed with other alkaline solutions, such as HEPES and NaOH. Using MT promoter-luciferase reporter gene constructs, we found that the presence of metal response elements (MREs) in the promoter region is necessary for NaHCO3-induced MT gene transcription. This finding is further supported by the observation that the binding activity between the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and the MRE were increased after NaHCO3 treatment. Following NaHCO3 treatment, an increase in cell proliferation was observed in CdR cells but not in the parental CHO K1 cells that do not express MT transcripts due to MT gene methylation. Using synchronized cells, an increase in cell proliferation was observed 9 h after NaHCO3 addition. Notably, proliferation of CHO K1 cells was increased when transfected with an MT gene. The effect of MT on cell growth was affirmed by treating CHO K1 cells with 5-azacytidine (Aza) to demethylate the MT gene. Proliferation increased in Aza-treated CHO K1 cells after NaHCO3 treatment. These results demonstrate that NaHCO3 stimulates MT gene expression and causes an enhancement of cell proliferation in CHO cells. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 15965962
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Jun 15;213(3):245-55. Epub 2006 Jan 4.
Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and HIF-regulated genes.
Li Q, Chen H, Huang X, Costa M.
Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University, School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, NY 10987, USA.
Several metal ions that are carcinogenic affect cellular iron homeostasis by competing with iron transporters or iron-regulated enzymes. Some metal ions can mimic a hypoxia response in cells under normal oxygen tension, and induce expression of HIF-1alpha-regulated genes. This study investigated whether 12 metal ions altered iron homeostasis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells as measured by an activation of IRP-1 and ferritin level. We also studied hypoxia signaling by measuring HIF-1alpha protein levels, hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter activity, and Cap43 protein level (an HIF-1alpha responsive gene). Our results show the following: (i) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), Mn(II), and to a lesser extent As(III) and Cu(II) activated the binding of IRP-1 to IRE after 24 h, while the other metal ions had no effect; (ii) 10 of 12 metal ions induced HIF-1alpha protein but to strikingly different degrees. Two of these metal ions, Al(III) and Cd(II), did not induce HIF-1alpha protein; however, as indicated below, only Ni(II), Co (II), and to lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) activated HIF-1alpha-dependent transcription. The combined effects of both [Ni(II) + As(III)] and [Ni(II) + Cr(VI)] on HIF-1alpha protein were synergistic; (iii) Addition of Fe(II) with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) attenuated the induction of HIF-1alpha after 4 h treatment; (iv) Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) significantly decrease ferritin level after 24 h exposure; (v) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) activated HRE reporter gene after 20 h treatment; (vi) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) increased the HIF-1-dependent Cap43 protein level after 24 h treatment. In conclusion, only Ni (II), Co (II), and to a lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) significantly stabilized HIF-1alpha protein, activated IRP, decreased the levels of ferritin, induced the transcription of HIF-dependent reporter, and increased the expression of Cap43 protein levels (HIF-dependent gene). The mechanism for the significant stabilization and elevation of HIF-1alpha protein which drives these other parameters was previously shown by us and others to involve a loss of cellular Fe as well as inhibition of HIF-1alpha-dependent prolyl hydroxylases which target the binding of VHL ubiquitin ligase and degrade HIF-1alpha. Even though there were small effects of some of the other metals on IRP and HIF-1alpha, downstream effects of HIF-1alpha activation and therefore robust hypoxia signaling were only observed with Ni(II), Co(II), and to much lesser extents with Mn(II) and V(V) in human A549 lung cells. It is of interest that the metal ions that were most effective in activating hypoxia signaling were the ones that were poor inducers of metallothionein protein and also decreased Ferritin levels, since both of these proteins can bind metal ions and protect the cell against toxicity in human lung cells. It is important to study effects of these metals in human lung cells since this represents a major route of human environmental and occupational exposure to these metal ions. PMID: 16386771
Precautionary Measures for Possible Radiation Plume
By The School of Natural Healing
In answer to the many inquiries of what to do about the recent news and reports (New York Times) of a radiation plume reaching the west coast by Friday, here are some things to know and ways in which you can be prepared.
At this point the levels of radiation prospected to be in the plume that would actually fall on estimated California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Alaska, etc. is very minimal and is not to pose a serious risk to health. However, "if" the situation in Japan worsens (ie. the Fukushima reactors have a rod "meltdown" - creating a massive release of radiation into the atmosphere) taking the following precautions/preparations would be our suggestion, especially for those living in the pacific and on the west coast.
1) Take the time to reevaluate your emergency plan and supplies as a family. Make sure your vehicles are not empty of fuel in case you need to evacuate and do not count on phones working in case of actual emergency.
2) If suggestion is and you plan to, stay put and to stay within your home for an allotment of time make sure you have plastic and duct tape to seal your windows and doors as well as the supplies needed in the case of a usual emergency: water, food, etc.
3) If you plan to evacuate, have at least a 72-hour kit ready to go at a moment's notice. This is good to have no matter what you plans are.
4) Staring now, significantly increase your intake of naturally sourced iodine-containing foods and superfoods: (*estimated amounts of naturally occurring iodine)
Icelandic Kelp - *8000ppm
Kelp, Dulse, etc. (Seaweeds) - *5400ppm
Chlorella - *100ppm
Spirulina - *70ppm
Pistacios - *51ppm
Dark Greens in all there variety
Colorful vegetables & fresh fruits
Onions & Garlic
5) The purpose of increasing your intake of iodine-containing foods is to raise the amount of stable iodine in the blood. This will increase the likelihood that the thyroid will absorb the stable iodine instead of the radioactive iodine (iodine-129 and iodine-131) released during a nuclear accident.
6) During the intake of iodine (kelp capsules SNH recommendation: 8-12 capsules a day depending on the size and health of the individual) further precautionary measures would be to take the four Dr. Christopher's Cleansing Formulas to keep things cleaned out (Lower Bowel Formula, Kidney Formula, Liver & Gall Bladder Formula, and the Blood Stream Formula) and then to add the Heavy Mineral Bugleweed Formula for additional cleansing.